The definition of the Holy Quran is "A miraculous speech that was sent to Prophet Muhammad through revelation, which is encoded in the Quranic text, narrated without any hearsay and whose mere recitation is considered an act of worship."
The most important feature which every description must carry is that it must be able to define something comprehensively, without any deficiencies or exaggerations. Thus every aspect of this description of the Holy Quran needs to be examined for its comprehensive explanation.
The Quran is a book that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad. The Quran is in no way, a figment of Prophet Muhammad's imagination.
It was sent to mankind through revelation. Revelation is a special way of communication between Allah the Almighty and prophets and it not possible for one who doesn't experience it (anyone other than prophets) to understand it. However, what we can grasp is what the prophet has told us about revelation and the narrations of those who witnessed the state of the Prophet during revelation.
The Quran is a text that has been encoded into a book. Meaning it was revealed as spoken word and then preserved shortly after revelation in a manner that will be explained later on.
The Quran has been preserved since its revelation until today through generations of oral narrations which leave no room for doubt. Oral narrations or the Turkish word tevatür, is the transport of information from countless people, so large in number that it would impossible for them to be in complete agreement, to every generation in a fashion that is comprehensible and the Quran has maintained its existence as a single original copy, leaving no room doubt regarding the text.
The reading of the Holy Quran is considered an act of worship. It is not just the meanings which it contains, but the words chosen to express those meanings that are rooted in the divine. Meaning the Quran's wording are the words of Allah. Thus, the fact that Allah's last message has been addressed to us with miraculous wording in a language that is spoken and understood in a clear and discernible fashion results in the mere reading of the text becoming an act of worship that is an indicator of servitude to Allah.
The Quran has challenged everyone; starting from those who first heard its message upon revelation up until all of humanity until the Day of Judgement, to replicate a copy of it should they not believe that it is in fact a divine text. And it has not been possible to produce a single sentence equal to the Quran in language or meaning by anyone, including those who reached a peak in literary prose and success. The Quran is miraculous in terms of not just its meaning and content, but its language, too. Because comprehending the miracle of its language is only possible through comprehension of Arab literature, the language of the Quran is one which is sought to be learned through the whole Muslim world
The Quran being in Arabic
The actual Quran is in Arabic. The text which has been maintained and protected until today is Arabic. There was no need to translate this text into the Arabic language from another language. It exists in every important language today so that people who don't know the Arabic language may comprehend it. But it must be known that every translation is a somewhat tampering with the text because it is not possible to transfer any text, even human writings, to another language without overlooking the meaning of some of original language. A text such as the Quran, which is a source for rules governing every aspect of life, cannot excuse the loss of meaning. One of the influential interpreters of the Holy Quran in the 20th Century, Hamdi Yazır of Elmalı, drew an analogy between understanding the Quran from its original language versus trying to understand it from a translation, noting that the former is like holding a rose and touching it while the latter is like looking at a picture of a rose.
Every translation of the Holy Quran will be limited by the meanings which the translator tries to grasp; it will never fully state the full meaning of the Quran. While the translations of the Quran may be useful for those who don't understand Arabic to gain general meanings on different topics, it will not allow for them to form religious verdicts or form ideas on Islamic subjects.
Languages develop with time and the texts which stay the same become incomprehensible for those who even continue to speak the same language. This is true for all languages of the world, including the most ancient. Arabic is the only language which falls outside of this rule. This language has not changed in any form over the past 1500 years, including its vocabulary, grammar, writing and even pronunciation. Is it not a miracle that the Almighty Allah has chosen a consistent language that will last until the Day of Judgement as His mode of communication?
The Holy Quran identifies it's self as a "very clear book" in many verses. Thus the Quran is not an incomprehensible book that contains hidden, symbolic and esoteric meanings. It's addresses are the whole of mankind. However there are such lofty meanings contained in this simplicity and explicitness that each verse speaks of something different to every level of mankind. Without knowing the reason for the revelation of these verses, knowing the features in the structure of its wording, grasping how the first generation of Muslims understood and applied its teachings, it is not possible to fully grasp its meanings to a reach the right conclusion. For this reason, the incredible knowledge of wealth attained by the science of interpretation of the Holy Quran should lead the way for us to correctly understand this divine text. It became clearly obvious that simply knowing Arabic will not allow for the Quran to be correctly understood as the first interpretations of the Quran were completed in Arabic for Arabic-speakers.