Eventually, the Abbasid caliph becomes a secondary figure, almost a symbol. Real power is increasingly in the hands of the body guards, the Imperial Guard and hence the figure of the vizier morphs into the figure of the Sultan. This process begins with the family of the viziers in the second and third centuries of their rule.
More significantly, the emergence of the Seljuk’s (Turkish-speaking soldiers, military-types, administrators) begin effectively as rulers when they establish themselves as the real power in the land.
Murad leads up to the spread of Islam to the south and the north and the East, whereby the principle agent of Islamization seems to have been the tariqas.
Audio courtesy of Muhammad Hüdayi. © www.lastprophet.info